New Related Lessons:
Images of the Past: I-Spy - That’s Not My Habitat During this activity your students will participate in a hands-on observation/habitat challenge. You will notice an increase in the development of your students' observation skills. Also, this is a great activity that encourages students to take a closer look at the habitats around them.
Images of the Past: Observation Skills and Directions During this lesson your students will complete one or more tasks in which they will enhance their observation skills and ability to follow directions. They will also learn about Custer’s Historical Stagecoach lines which provided daily accommodations for travelers from rail-heads at Sidney, Nebraska and Cheyenne, Wyoming. These are perfect activities for an afterschool group, club, elementary class or for home use.
Images of the Past: Terminal Velocity - Coffee Filter During this activity your students will use coffee filters to investigate air resistance, friction and terminal velocity. Your students will design and conduct an experiment in which they will drop coffee filters to see how an increase in weight affects the rate at which the filters drop.
Things To Do
1. Print out the guided notes and distribute to class.
2. Watch Dakota Pathways Episode #18 and have the students complete
the guided notes.
3. Go online and complete the “Activity” (word search) and “Challenge” quiz.
4. Student glossary included.
5. There is a list of related links that would be helpful for student
6. Print out the crossword puzzle and distribute to class.
7. Class Activity – Candy on the Open Range
1. Guided Notes
“Guided Notes” -
“Guided Notes” - Teacher
2. Episode #18 Webcast
3. Online games
a. Have the students access the main page of Dakota Pathways. The
word search game is found by clicking “Activity”. Answer key for word search.
b. Have the students access the main page of Dakota Pathways. The
online quiz is found by clicking “Challenge”.
Have the students access the main page of Dakota Pathways. We have
included a student glossary.
We have included an extensive list of related sites. We preview
each related site looking for adult content. Unfortunately, we cannot
find all of the inappropriate material on an individual site. We
include links we feel may be of use in the education setting. Each
site has individual rights and disclaimers you must be aware of.
Please call us Toll Free at 1-800-456-0766 if you find any
questionable content and we will remove it. If we have unintentionally
linked to your site and we are not allowed to please contact us at
1-800-456-0766 and we will remove the link. Thank you.
6. Crossword Puzzle
The students may use the vocabulary words and definitions for the
crossword puzzle if they need help.
7. Class Activity – Candy on the Open Range
I have had the experience of rounding up cattle on my grandfather’s
farm. He had a small herd of cattle located on a section of land north
of the homestead. The area was bordered by barbed wire and electric
fences, which helped corral the cows during our small roundups. We
moved the cattle toward the homestead many times with a green 1963
Chevy pickup. Surprisingly, rounding up the cattle in this small area
wasn’t as easy as it looked. Usually we would have one or two cows
that drifted from the group. Most of the time we found the strays by
the creek on the east side of the pasture. Also, some of the cows
would get spooked from the loud exhaust and run in the wrong
direction. A job that should have taken 15-20 minutes may have taken
I cannot imagine trying to locate thousands of cattle stretched across
millions of acres of land. To make the situation worse, other cattle
owners grazed their cattle on the same public land. Finding and
separating all of the cattle had to be similar to finding a needle in
The activity below is designed to help the students begin to grasp the
huge undertaking of a roundup on the open range. The students will
locate small pieces of wrapped candy. The candy will be placed in two
different sections of grass. One of the sections will represent the
open range and the other will represent a fenced pasture.
Note: Times are estimations- will vary based on your class size
2 - Sections of grass
40 - Pieces of Candy (don’t use candy if the grass has been sprayed)
4 - Stakes
1 - Roll of string or twine
1 - Hammer
1 - 25 foot tape measure
1 - Worksheet / student (click here)
1 - Stop watch
2 - Plastic bags
Preparation: (poison danger from spraying of grass – do not eat
The two sections of grass must be located and marked (really short
grass will not work). The smaller section (fenced pasture) should be a
25 foot by 25 foot plot of grass. You will need to measure the section
using a 25 foot tape measure. Place a stake in each of the 4 corners
and run a string to each stake forming a square. The plot can be a
little larger if you have a large class. You should place 20 pieces of
candy (cattle) on the section. The candy should be green in color and
some of the pieces should be hidden under the grass. Mark 10 pieces of
candy with a special brand and the remaining pieces with a different
The larger section (open range) should be considerably larger. You
want a section of land at least the size of a football field. The open
range section is too large to use stakes and string to enclose it; you
should use existing barriers like sidewalks, bushes and trees as
markers. Next you need to place 20 pieces of candy (cattle) on the
section. The candy should be green in color and some of the pieces
should be hidden under the grass. Mark 10 pieces of candy with a
special brand and the remaining pieces with a different brand.
The students should view Dakota Pathways #18: Cowboys on the Open
In Class: (50 minutes)
Pasture (25’x25’ section) - Divide the students into two separate
groups. Each group will be assigned one of the brands drawn on the
candy. The two groups will work together rounding up the cattle
(candies). They will be given 45 seconds to collect as many cows
(candies) as possible. Use a stop watch to time them. All of the candy
should be placed in a plastic bag marked pasture.
Open range – Divide the students into two separate groups. Each group
will be assigned one of the brands drawn on the candy. The two groups
will work together rounding up the cattle (candies). They will be
given 45 seconds to collect as many cows (candies) as possible. Use a
stop watch to time them. All of the candy should be placed in a
plastic bag marked open range.
Note: more time may be needed for a small class or tall grass
Results / Conclusion
The candy (cows) from the open range bag should be separated by
brands into two piles. Complete the same process for the pasture bag.
The pieces of candy from each bag should be counted and tabulated on
the board. The students should complete the following worksheet which
will help them understand the advantages and disadvantages of grazing
cattle on the open range.
Click here. (PDF)
FOURTH GRADE HISTORY STANDARDS
1. examine various regions of the United States in order to focus
on how the following affected development of South Dakota, including
site selection of settlements (geographical location – where and why),
opportunities available, natural resources, and population influences.
2. explain the impact of people and geographic location on the growth
and expansion of South Dakota, emphasizing Manda, Arikara, Sioux, and
other historic tribes; explorers (Lewis and Clark and the Veredrye
brothers) and traders (Pierre Chorteau and Manuel Lisa); railroad
expansion and town building; homesteaders and gold miners; and
rainfall, prairie, Great Plains, Black Hills, and the Missouri River
4. Analyze issues of concern in South Dakota, including water issues;
farming and ranching issues; Indian and Non-Indian relationships; and
urban/rural population changes.
FOURTH GRADE GEOGRAPHY STANDARDS
2. define regions as categorized by geographic location.
5. locate major South Dakota geographical features, such as the
Missouri River; the Black Hills and Badlands; and the capital (Pierre)
and the following cities: Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Aberdeen, Huron,
6. evaluate the impact geography has on the inhabitants of South
Dakota such as location of cities, transportation, industries,
agricultural products, and culture.
Full Script (PDF)